Need 800-1000 words DOC B is the only resource you may use and cited, do not use any other resource Force on answer the question, Be sure to thoroughly answer the question asked. directly addressed the question The red question is more important than other questions, but all question is imported Do not share this work to anyone or upload this work in any website Read Doc first , do not miss anything or details. If you have any question or need anything please let me know All work is needed write in right format and no errors in grammar,punctuation, word choice, spelling. Do not use any real name or real company name, for all work you can use A company without a name (No need to introduce the company in detail) or use I have Internship in this company. Do not use too many other resources, use your own words to finish this or change and rewrite it, do not share this work or upload it to any website, and it has to be your original work. Post A A. In the summary of It s all Politics, how is politics defined? (This question is exempt from the scoring anchors below; it is expected this answer will not require multiple sentences.) [up to 20 points] B. The summary discusses five key areas of political development (i.e., intuition, insight, persuasion, power, and courage) and offers suggestions for how to improve each of these skills. Choose one of the skills that you believe to be the most important to develop for your own growth as an employee or manager, and thoroughly discuss why you chose the particular skill and how you can use it in your work life. If you do not agree with any of these skills (which is fine), discuss why and your thoughts against these skills. Side note: Be sure to reflect upon the Political Power: Courage Versus Suicide section before attempting to use any of these skills and tactics. [up to 50 points] C. How does this reading relate to the Power reading? Thoroughly discuss. [up to 30 points] Need 800-1000 words Grade Determination The starting point value associated with each question component is provided in brackets after the question component. Grading anchors for each question component are as follows: o full credit (100%): Very thorough, in-depth discussion reflecting strong critical thinking (requires a minimum of at least four substantive sentences); answers the question asked o partial credit (90%): Thorough, in-depth discussion reflecting strong critical thinking (requires a minimum of at least four substantive sentences); answers the question asked o partial credit (80%): Somewhat thorough, in-depth discussion reflecting moderate critical thinking (requires a minimum of at least three substantive sentences); answers the question asked o partial credit (70%): Minimally thorough discussion; answers question but reflects little critical thinking (requires a minimum of at least three substantive sentences); answers the question asked o partial credit (60%): Surface-level discussion; no depth to response/discussion reflecting very little critical thinking; answers the question asked o no credit (0%): No answer or does not answer the question asked Deductions to starting score: o Use of outside sources (unless otherwise noted in question and/or instructions): automatic zero o Not writing in complete sentences: 10-point deduction per occurrence o Grammatical/typographical errors: 0-2: no deduction 3-5: 10-point deduction more than 6: 30-point deduction Bennis.ffirs 3/26/08 9:03 AM Page iii Warren Bennis Daniel Goleman James O Toole with Patricia Ward Biederman TRANSPARENCY How Leaders Create a Culture of Candor Bennis.ffirs 3/26/08 9:03 AM Page ii Bennis.ffirs 3/26/08 9:03 AM Page i TRANSPARENCY Bennis.ffirs 3/26/08 9:03 AM Page ii Bennis.ffirs 3/26/08 9:03 AM Page iii Warren Bennis Daniel Goleman James O Toole with Patricia Ward Biederman TRANSPARENCY How Leaders Create a Culture of Candor Bennis.ffirs 3/26/08 9:03 AM Page iv Copyright 2008 by Warren Bennis, Daniel Goleman, and James O Toole Published by Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741 www.josseybass.com No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the Web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Readers should be aware that Internet Web sites offered as citations and/or sources for further information may have changed or disappeared between the time this was written and when it is read. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and speci cally disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or tness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of pro t or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. Jossey-Bass books and products are available through most bookstores. To contact Jossey-Bass directly call our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-956-7739, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3986, or fax 317-572-4002. Jossey-Bass also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bennis, Warren G. Transparency : how leaders create a culture of candor / Warren Bennis, Daniel Goleman, James O Toole ; with Patricia Ward Biederman. 1st ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-0-470-27876-5 (cloth) 1. Disclosure of information. 2. Corporate governance. 3. Organizational culture. I. Goleman, Daniel. II. O Toole, James. III. Title. HD2741.B386 2008 658.4 038 dc22 2008007570 Printed in the United States of America first edition HB Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Bennis.ftoc 3/26/08 9:04 AM Page v CONTENTS vii preface Warren Bennis 1 2 3 creating a culture of candor 1 Warren Bennis, Daniel Goleman, and Patricia Ward Biederman speaking truth to power 45 James O Toole the new transparency 93 Warren Bennis notes 123 the authors 129 v Bennis.ftoc 3/26/08 9:04 AM Page vi Bennis.fpref 3/26/08 9:04 AM Page vii Warren Bennis PREFACE Certain issues leap to the fore across institutions and start to enter almost all our conversations about organizations, business, public life, and our personal realities. Transparency is one of those urgent, increasingly prominent issues. As someone who has devoted much of his life to the study of leaders, I nd myself talking about transparency and thus about trust as well whenever I talk about leadership. Transparency is a central issue whether the subject is global business, corporate governance, national and international politics, or how the media deal with the tidal wave of information that slams into us each day. An inclusive and appealing word, transparency encompasses candor, integrity, honesty, ethics, clarity, full disclosure, legal compliance, and a host of other things that allow us to deal fairly with each other. In a networked universe, where competition is global and reputations can be shattered by the click of a mouse, transparency is often a matter of survival. As stakeholders in many different organizations, we increasingly clamor for transparency, but what are we truly asking vii Bennis.fpref 3/26/08 9:04 AM Page viii for? What is the promise of transparency? And what are its very real risks? How should leaders and organizations think about transparency and why is it essential that leaders understand it? In this book, I join with fellow authors and veteran students of organizational life Dan Goleman, James O Toole, and my longtime collaborator Patricia Ward Biederman to explore what it means to be a transparent leader, create a transparent organization, and live in an ever-more-transparent world culture. This book makes no claims to be the last word on this complex subject. But we believe these three interconnected essays offer insights that will help leaders think more clearly and act more thoughtfully in matters relating to transparency, an issue that becomes ever more important as this fascinating, dif cult era unfolds. Trust and transparency are always linked. Without transparency, people don t believe what their leaders say. In the United States, many of us have lived with the sense that the government has been keeping things from us, and many mistrust the explanation that our leaders must do so because the truth would empower our enemies. Many of us believe the lack of transparency is the real enemy. Transparency is so urgent an issue in large part because of the emergence in the last decade of ubiquitous digital technology that makes transparency all but inevitable. We live in an era when communication has never been easier, nor more relentless. More and more of our experience is being stored electronically, and powerful search engines allow this swelling archive to be mined in a matter of seconds by anyone with Internet access. viii PREFACE Bennis.fpref 3/26/08 9:04 AM Page ix This new technology is literally emancipating millions of people who once lived in isolation within the con nes of their villages, and it offers all of us endless new possibilities. At the same time, the new technology has ramped up the ambient level of anxiety in daily life as we increasingly live roped to our personal digital assistants, cell phones, and other beeping, glowing devices. Paradoxically, greater transparency has brought bewilderment as well as enlightenment, confusion as well as clarity. Each new revelation, much as we long for it, reminds us that the ground is not solid beneath our feet. We are uneasily aware that the present has no shelf life. Although we know more than ever, we often feel less in control. Our world seems simultaneously more anarchic and more Orwellian, more and less free. These three essays look at transparency from three different vantage points within and between organizations, in terms of personal responsibility, and nally in the context of the new digital reality all with an emphasis on how these relate to leaders and leadership. In the rst essay Dan Goleman, Pat Ward Biederman, and I explore an urgent dilemma for every contemporary leader: how to create a culture of candor. We argue that the unimpeded ow of information is essential to organizational health. Best known for his work on emotional intelligence, Dan has been doing research for decades on how information ow shapes organizations. He has a longstanding interest in selfdeception and how it skews decision making. And he is fascinated by the role vital lies play in keeping essential truths from surfacing, rst in families and later in businesses and other organizations. For my part, I have long considered candor essential PREFACE ix Bennis.fpref 3/26/08 9:04 AM Page x for personal and organizational health; denying the truth harms us immeasurably. Organizations need candor the way the heart needs oxygen. Ironically, the more corporate and political leaders ght transparency, the less successful they are. The reason for this is not, unfortunately, the inevitable triumph of good over evil but the reality-shifting power of the new technology. Whether leaders like it or not, thanks to YouTube, there is no place to hide. Jim O Toole s essay has the provocative title Speaking Truth to Power, a prerequisite for transparency and a responsibility we too often fail to ful ll. An author, consultant, and professor of business and ethics with a passion for philosophy as well as a degree in social anthropology, Jim brings an expansive frame of reference to bear on this critical topic. Citing Sophocles, Shakespeare, sociobiology, and General Shinseki, he includes a provocative analysis of Aristotle s belief that virtue requires becoming angry at the things that warrant anger. Jim also describes his unforgettable encounter with Donald Rumsfeld at an Aspen Institute seminar. My nal essay explores what I call the new transparency. It shows how digital technology is making the entire world more transparent. Because of technology, leaders are losing their monopoly on power, and this has positive impacts notably the democratization of power as well as some negative ones. In the following pages, we talk about whistleblowers and Second Life, groupthink, and blogging as an act of resistance. We show how digital technology is driving the new transparency, one that is paradoxically both more and less dependent on the x PREFACE Bennis.fpref 3/26/08 9:04 AM Page xi will of the individual. But ultimately this is not a book about technology. It is about the things that have mattered since the new technology was the int and the longbow courage, integrity, candor, responsibility. Technologies change. Human nature doesn t. It is our hope that what you read here will help you embrace transparency, a good thing but rarely an easy one. Combining theory and experience, our book offers both a long view of transparency and practical advice. We hope you will nd ideas in each essay to make you a better follower, a better leader. Santa Monica, California Warren Bennis March 2008 PREFACE xi Bennis.fpref 3/26/08 9:04 AM Page xii Bennis.fpref 3/26/08 9:04 AM Page xiii TRANSPARENCY Bennis.fpref 3/26/08 9:04 AM Page xiv Bennis.c01 3/26/08 9:05 AM Page 1 1 Warren Bennis, Daniel Goleman, and Patricia Ward Biederman CREATING A CULTURE OF CANDOR In the spring of 2007 something unprecedented happened in the southern Chinese city of Xiamen. In a nation notorious for keeping citizens in the dark, word got out that a petrochemical plant was to be built near the center of the lovely port city. The factory would have produced toxic paraxylene, and residents who learned of the plans were understandably alarmed. A decade ago, concerned Chinese citizens could have done little to stop the plant s construction. But this is a new age, not just in China but throughout the world. Via e-mail, blogs, and text messages, word of the plan spread and a protest was organized against it. As the Wall Street Journal reported, hundreds, perhaps thousands of protesters gathered at Xiamen s city hall to 1 Bennis.c01 3/26/08 9:05 AM Page 2 oppose the plant.1 Chinese of cials refused to acknowledge the protest and shut down Web sites that opposed the plant. But using today s ubiquitous communication technology protestors were able to circumvent the of cial silence. Participants took photos of the protest with their cell phones and posted them on the Web. Much to the chagrin of Chinese of cials, some photos were transmitted straight to sympathetic media. The result was a victory of electronics-driven light over of cial darkness. City of cials have postponed construction of the plant until a new study of its environmental impact is completed. Today the word transparency pops up in stories about everything from corporate governance to the activities of the U.S. Justice Department. In the mouths of those in power, its meaning tends to be fuzzy, although, as New York Times essayist John Schwartz writes, when of cials say they are being transparent, what they really mean is not lying and not hiding what we re really doing. But that doesn t sound as nice or vague, does it? 2 The vagueness is understandable, however. As we all know, claiming to be transparent is not the same as actually being transparent. Even as many heads of corporations and even of states boast about their commitment to transparency, the containment of truth continues to be a dearly held value of many organizations. Sadly, you can say you believe in transparency without practicing it or even aspiring to it. While opacity is far less of a problem in the United States than in some other nations, it continues to characterize many, if not most, American organizations. And lack of transparency is usually no accident. It is often systematically built into the 2 T R A N S PA R E N C Y Bennis.c01 3/26/08 9:05 AM Page 3 very structure of an organization. In the following pages, we look at the forces that conspire against an organizational culture of candor and transparency, and the often disastrous results when those qualities are lacking. We also show that the effort to withhold information from the public has become an all-but-impossible task because of profound changes in the global culture. Most important of these is the emergence of electronic technology that facilitates sunlight, and the rise, over the last decade, of the blogosphere a development that has made transparency all but inevitable. In today s gotcha culture, no men s room tryst is sure to remain secret, no racial slur goes unrecorded, no corporate wrongdoing can be safely entombed forever in a company s locked le cabinets. A decade ago, secrets often remained buried until a professional journalist could be persuaded to reveal them. Today anyone with a cell phone and access to a computer has the power to bring down a billiondollar corporation or even a government. what is a culture of candor? When we speak of transparency and creating a culture of candor, we are really talking about the free ow of information within an organization and between the organization and its many stakeholders, including the public. For any institution, the ow of information is akin to a central nervous system: the organization s effectiveness depends on it. An organization s capacity to compete, solve problems, innovate, meet challenges, C R E AT I N G A C U LT U R E O F C A N D O R 3 Bennis.c01 3/26/08 9:05 AM Page 4 and achieve goals its intelligence, if you will varies to the degree that information ow remains healthy. That is particularly true when the information in question consists of crucial but hard-to-take facts, the information that leaders may bristle at hearing and that subordinates too often, and understandably, play down, disguise, or ignore. For information to ow freely within an institution, followers must feel free to speak openly, and leaders must welcome such openness. No matter the of cial line, true transparency is rare. Many organizations pay lip service to values of openness and candor, even writing their commitment into mission statements. Too often these are hollow, if not Orwellian, documents that fail to describe the organization s real mission and inspire frustration, even cynicism, in followers all too aware of a very different organizational reality. When we talk about information ow, we are not talking about some mysterious process. It simply means that critical information gets to the right person at the right time and for the right reason. Although the successful ow of information is not automatic and often
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