View attached explanation and answer. Let me know if you have any questions.Peptic Ulcers DiseaseNameInstitutional AffiliationsCourseIntroduction Peptic ulcers are abnormalities of the stomach, duodenum,and esophagus inner lining. Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is an important cause ofincreased healthcare costs and high morbidity. This presentation will broadly cover essential componentsassociated with PUD.Objectives To discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, physiology, andetiology of PUD. To explain the clinical presentations of PUD. To elaborate on diagnosis, prevention, and managementpractices of PUD. Discuss treatment methods adopted for PUD. Explain complications associated with PUD.Types of PUD There are three types ofPUD, namely gastric,esophageal, and duodenalulcers. Gastric ulcers developalong the inside of thestomach lining. Esophageal ulcers occurin the esophagus lining. Duodenal ulcers form onthe inside lining of theduodenum (Narayanan etal., 2018).Fig 1. Types of PUD (Drini, 2017).EpidemiologyIncidence The incidence of no complications PUD is 0.1 percent or oneindividual per a thousand person-years. For peptic ulcers with complications, the incidence is at 0.7cases in 1000 individuals-years (Kavitt et al., 2019). Peptic ulcer incidence is greatly affected by the presence ofHelicobacter pylori.Epidemiology Cont dPrevalence The prevalence of PUD ranges between 11 and 14 percent inmen and 8 to 11 in women (Drini, 2017). Per year, the prevalence of PUD is between 0.12 to 1.5 percentbased on physician diagnosis (Drini, 2017). . In the US, patients asymptomatic to Helicobacter pylori have aprevalence of between 2 and 6 percent per year (Drini, 2017).Prognosis The prognosis of PUD is excellent when the cause isaddressed. Many patients with PUD are treated successfully with H.Pylori infections eradicated completely. Mortality rate of PUD has drastically reduced over theyears, with only one death per 100 000 cases (Kuna et al.,2019). There is a high risk of long-term mortality after surgery,especially for PUD patients above 60 years.Anatomy The anterior and posteriorbranches of the vagus nerve riseon either side of the esophagus. Anterior and posterior branchesinteract with each other throughthe esophageal plexus. Posterior trunk branches formingceliac and posterior gastricbranches (Dunlap & Patterson,2019) .
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