Question 1 of 40 2.5 PointsWhich of the following is not one of the six key elements of organizational structure?A. location of authorityB. departmentalizationC. work specializationD. span of controlQuestion 2 of 40 2.5 Points__________ is the key concept that underlies all bureaucracies.A. A dual line of commandB. StandardizationC. DecentralizationD. Employee empowermentQuestion 3 of 40 2.5 PointsOrganizations following a(n. __________ strategy try to both minimize risk and maximize opportunity for profit, moving into new products or new markets only after innovators have proven their viability.A. innovationB. cost-cuttingC. imitationD. organicQuestion 4 of 40 2.5 PointsAn organization pursuing a(n. __________ tightly controls costs, refrains from incurring unnecessary expenses, and cuts prices for basic products.A. simple structureB. imitation strategyC. innovation strategyD. cost-minimization strategyQuestion 5 of 40 2.5 PointsYou instruct the trainees to ask the client organization whether they have clearly defined procedures covering most of the jobs in the organization and lots of rules and policies. You want to help them understand the __________.A. chain of commandB. degree of formalizationC. span of controlD. degree of departmentalizationQuestion 6 of 40 2.5 PointsThe Acme Products case study notes that the senior management at Acme is concerned because the company takes so long to bring new products to the market. Which of the following approaches would your trainees identify as the most likely solution to this problem?A. reducing the use of cross-functional work teamsB. decentralization of the decision-making processC. decreased work specializationD. decreased formalization of policies and proceduresQuestion 7 of 40 2.5 PointsThe unity-of-command principle states that __________.A. managers should limit their oversight to a maximum of 12 employeesB. managers should oversee one to four employees on averageC. an individual should be directly responsible to only one supervisorD. managers should provide direction to their employees in a unified fashionQuestion 8 of 40 2.5 PointsWhich of the following is not part of an organization s environment?A. public pressure groupsB. customersC. employeesD. competitorsQuestion 9 of 40 2.5 PointsWork specialization contributes to higher employee productivity, but at the price of __________.A. reduced economies of scaleB. increased costC. reduced job satisfactionD. restricted flow of informationQuestion 10 of 40 2.5 PointsSpan of control is a key element of an organization s structure. Which of the following key questions is addressed by this element?A. On what basis will jobs be grouped together?B. To whom do individuals and groups report?C. To what degree will there be rules and regulations to direct employees and managers?D. How many individuals can a manager efficiently and effectively direct?Question 11 of 40 2.5 PointsYour trainees are given a case study concerning a local manufacturing firm called Acme Products. In assessing Acme s organizational structure, your trainees notice that all of the company s decisions are made by top management, with little or no input from lower-level personnel. The trainees most likely identify Acme as a __________ organization.A. highly decentralizedB. highly formalizedC. highly departmentalizedD. highly centralizedQuestion 12 of 40 2.5 PointsJob candidates who prefer __________ are likely to seek out and take employment in mechanistic structures, and those who want __________ are more likely to end up in an organic structure.A. predictability; autonomyB. centralization; decentralizationC. job satisfaction; job securityD. simple structure; matrix structureQuestion 13 of 40 2.5 PointsWhich of the following is typically a characteristic of the mechanistic model of organization?A. low formalizationB. rigid departmentalizationC. decentralized managementD. wide spans of controlQuestion 14 of 40 2.5 PointsWhich of the following abilities is the primary strength of a bureaucracy?A. to perform standardized activities in a highly efficient mannerB. to break the unity-of-command concept between departmentsC. to facilitate coordination when the organization has complex activitiesD. to save a great deal of money by eliminating hierarchical rolesQuestion 15 of 40 2.5 PointsThe major advantage of a virtual organization is its __________.A. decentralized structureB. ability to enhance role clarityC. flexibilityD. highly departmentalized structureQuestion 16 of 40 2.5 PointsWhich of the following statements is true about the simple structure?A. It is very expensive to operate.B. It is characterized by a high degree of departmentalization.C. It becomes increasingly inadequate as an organization grows.D. It is rigid.Question 17 of 40 2.5 PointsEmployee discretion is inversely related to __________.A. complexityB. formalizationC. specializationD. departmentalizationQuestion 18 of 40 2.5 PointsWhich of the following statements is true regarding a matrix structure?A. It breaks the unity-of-command concept.B. It cannot achieve economies of scale.C. It reduces ambiguity about who reports to whom.D. It prevents power struggles.Question 19 of 40 2.5 PointsThe right inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect orders to be obeyed is termed __________.A. chain of commandB. authorityC. span of controlD. unity of commandQuestion 20 of 40 2.5 PointsChain of command is a key element of an organization s structure. Which of the following key questions is addressed by this element?A. How many individuals can a manager efficiently and effectively direct?B. To whom do individuals and groups report?C. On what basis will jobs be grouped together?D. To what degree are activities subdivided into separate jobs?Question 21 of 40 2.5 PointsAlessio s boss doesn t care whether Alessio works at home, at the office, or from his beach house. All he cares about is that the project is completed on time, on budget, and with exemplary quality. Which characteristic of organizational culture best describes this aspect of Alessio s job?A. low risk-takingB. high outcome orientationC. high attention to detailD. low aggressivenessQuestion 22 of 40 2.5 PointsWhich of the following steps could your supervisor take to best help you develop a commitment to your new company?A. encourage you to work independently at first to learn the ropesB. explain the rules and policies of the organization to youC. encourage you to develop friendships within the organizationD. encourage you to look carefully at your own assumptions, which may be biasedQuestion 23 of 40 2.5 PointsAlthough diversity does present many opportunities for organizations, effective diversity management means also working to eliminate __________.A. surface-level diversityB. unfair discriminationC. ethnic diversityD. irrelevant biographical characteristicsQuestion 24 of 40 2.5 PointsThe two major forms of workforce diversity are __________ and __________.A. surface-level diversity; deep-level diversityB. surface-level diversity; lateral-level diversityC. organizational-level diversity; individual-level diversityD. lateral-level diversity; deep-level diversityQuestion 25 of 40 2.5 Points__________ is the additional set of cultural characteristics that often overlap with race.A. EthnicityB. CivilizationC. DiversityD. AnthropologyQuestion 26 of 40 2.5 PointsBarbara is the lead editor for a small city newspaper. One of her advertising sales representatives, Mathew, was pulling in a lot of restaurant clients. Barbara realized that Mathew was quite knowledgeable about food and spoke quite elegantly while describing different dishes. She offered Mathew an opportunity to write a weekly restaurant review. Which aspect of creating a positive organization did Barbara utilize?A. rewarding more than punishingB. building on organization strengthsC. emphasizing individual growthD. encouraging intense unbridled competitionQuestion 27 of 40 2.5 PointsTo create a more ethical culture, management should do all of the following except __________.A. serve as a visible role modelB. encourage unbridled competitionC. provide ethical trainingD. communicate ethical expectationsQuestion 28 of 40 2.5 Points__________ is a process that helps new employees adapt to the prevailing organizational culture.A. SatisficingB. Reciprocal interdependenceC. SocializationD. FormalizationQuestion 29 of 40 2.5 PointsNunya employees are allowed to dress informally. This is an example of a __________ through which organizational culture is transmitted.A. storyB. ritualC. material symbolD. symbolic actQuestion 30 of 40 2.5 PointsA strong culture should reduce employee turnover because it results in __________.A. a highly centralized organizationB. narrow spans of controlC. cohesiveness and organizational commitmentD. a highly formalized organizationQuestion 31 of 40 2.5 Points__________ can be defined as actions taken by representatives of the organization who deny equal opportunity to perform or provide unequal rewards for performance.A. IntimidationB. Exclusive practicesC. Sexual harassmentD. Discriminatory policies or practicesQuestion 32 of 40 2.5 Points__________ also leaves qualified job candidates out of initial hiring and promotions.A. Random segregationB. Surface-level segregationC. Unfair discriminationD. Surface-level diversityQuestion 33 of 40 2.5 Points_________ is defined as the biological heritage people use to identify themselves.A. RaceB. DiversityC. CultureD. CivilizationQuestion 34 of 40 2.5 PointsThe information that you receive during the interviewing and hiring process is a part of the __________ stage of employee socialization.A. preencounterB. prearrivalC. encounterD. metamorphosisQuestion 35 of 40 2.5 PointsIdentify the correct order of the socialization process.A. encounter, metamorphosis, post-encounterB. prearrival, arrival, evaluationC. prearrival, arrival, post-arrivalD. prearrival, encounter, metamorphosisQuestion 36 of 40 2.5 PointsDuring the __________ stage, a new employee compares her expectations with the realities of the organization.A. prearrivalB. encounterC. metamorphosisD. post-arrivalQuestion 37 of 40 2.5 PointsStability is one of the seven primary characteristics that capture the essence of an organization s culture. It indicates the degree to which __________.A. organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growthB. management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve themC. management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organizationD. work activities are organized around teams rather than individualsQuestion 38 of 40 2.5 PointsThe phrase __________ can refer to any characteristic that makes people different from one another.A. lateral diversityB. individual diversityC. organic diversityD. workplace diversityQuestion 39 of 40 2.5 PointsPhyllis works for a corporation that recently fired three top managers who were caught using the company credit cards to lavishly furnish their offices and even purchase furniture that was found in their homes. Which method of maintaining an ethical culture is Phyllis s company pursuing?A. serving as a visible role modelB. communicating ethical expectationsC. providing ethical trainingD. visibly punishing unethical actsQuestion 40 of 40 2.5 PointsConsistency of behavior is an asset to an organization when the organization __________.A. operates in a stable environmentB. encourages innovation and risk-takingC. is highly departmentalizedD. has an employee-oriented cultu
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