Compare the labor-management
relations between the United States, Canada, and Australia. Identify three
major differences between each and provide your opinion on the effectiveness of
The similarities between the United States and Australia have several
agencies in certain parts of their jurisdictions, which allow 14,254 for law
enforcement organizations all over in the United States and more so thousands
of police officers to perform their professionalism. As Australia has only 8
agencies, and scattered throughout six of their states such as; Queensland, New
South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia, as
well as two other territories, the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), and the
Northern Territory (COPS, 2006). Australian officers amount to 47,000;
therefore, it balances out. The difference is how the United States has more
police agencies in large cities compared to Australia as this country has less,
but provides more officers in each state or territory.
Australia s police force enjoys working independently, thus, each
has a commissioner of police and a police or justice minister appointed by, and
responsible to, the respective government. In Australia, the government is the
political party in power at the time. There is a distinct separation of powers
between the role of the commissioner and the minister, although in more recent
times the independence of police commissioners has come into question. The
police associations believe they have to be the defenders of the police
profession, a role once clearly seen as that of the commissioner of police
Each union is branched out into a bargaining unit and enrolled in their
specific states and territory s legislation, as well as consulting wages in
addition to discussing further situations and concerns of working status while
pertaining to their associates. The importance relies on necessary communication
issues with police management and administration, while overseeing the usual
requirements needed to incorporate lawful defense and the specifications of
other benefits involved. Canada on the other hand is similar to Australia s
agreement that there is only one national representative body.
Unlike police associations in the United States and the United
Kingdom, Australia has not yet experienced splinter groups within their
memberships. Having watched these experiences unfold in both those countries,
Australian police associations are very conscious of ensuring broad
representation; hence, the development of groups such as the PFA s Women s
Advisory Group. Such representation is not always easy to achieve, and one area
where all associations have a common concern is the insufficient numbers of
young members wanting to take active roles in their associations (COPS, 2006).
In Canada, the most significant change in organization and structure
during the last 30 years is the amalgamation of small police services into
larger regionalized services and small municipalities disbanding their services
and contracting with their provincial police provider. The number of police
services decreased by more than 50 percent in that time (COPS, 2006). The
balance of labor relations in Canada is subject to provincial jurisdiction
under their respective labor codes, trade union, or labor relations acts. The
Canadian Professional Police Association is an organization that serves as the
national repository for police labor relations information. It endeavors to
provide its members with timely, accurate information and analysis on wages,
benefits, working conditions, equipment, health and safety, police governance,
police discipline, negotiations, grievance and interest arbitration, and other
matters determined by the board and membership. Finally, a unity is spread with
information and tactics as experiences are cooperated by police unions sharing
the concept of negotiations.
COPS. (2011). U. S. Department of Justice Office of Community-Oriented
Policing Services. Police Labor Management Relations (Vol. 1): Perspective
and Practical Solutions for Implementing Change, Making Reforms, and Handling
Crises for Managers and Union Leaders. Retrieved from
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